SIBIU, medieval city of Transylvania Sibiu (in Latin Cibinium, in Hungarian: Nagyszebem, in German: Hermannstadt), is the largest municipality and capital of the district of Sibiu, Romania. It is an important economic and cultural center of Transylvania, and between 1962 – 1971 it was the capital of the principality of Transylvania. He has the title of martyr city. According to the 2009 census it has a population of 154,548 inhabitants, of which 94% are Romanian and the rest is made up of Magyars and Germans. The majority of the population belongs to the Romanian Orthodox Church and Protestants and Catholics represent 4% of the population. The city passes by
Cibin river, a tributary of the Olt. The winter resort of Paltinis is 37 kilometers away, and is managed by the Sibiu municipal council. It was founded by Saxon settlers in the 12th century, who gave it the name of Hermannstadt. Consequently, part of its architecture is Germanic. According to statistics, 1.6% of the population of Sibiu is Saxon (German). Before World War II, it was the most important city for the German majority of Romania.
Its mayor, of Saxon origin, has made a series of important reforms that have made Sibiu one of the cities with the best quality of life in Romania. In 2007 it was together with Luxembourg, European Capital of Culture. The first documents of the city date from 1191, when the Celestial Pope III mentioned the German settlers in Transylvania (the Transylvan Saxons) with their headquarters in Sibiu then called Cibinum. It was built on a Roman settlement known at the beginning of the Medieval Age as Caedonia, apparently uninhabited at the time of the arrival of the Saxons. In the fourteenth century, the town was already an important commercial center in the region. In 1376 the artisans were grouped into 19 different guilds. Sibiu became the most important of the seven cities with an important German presence, which gave Transylvania the name of Siebenbürgen in the German language (literally „seven cities”). On the other hand, Sibiu became the headquarters of the Saxorum Universitas , the German Assembly in Transylvania.
During the 18th and 19th centuries the city became one of the most important Romanian culture centers in the region. In 1860, after the recognition of the Romanian Orthodox Church in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Sibiu became its metropolitan headquarters. Between the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 and the year 1867 (the year of Ausgleich), Sibiu was the meeting point of the “Transylvania Diet”, which had acquired its most representative form after the Empire’s agreement to extend the right to vote in the region. After the end of World War I, as the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Sibiu became part of Romania.
Historical data of the city of Sibiu
- 1292 The first hospital in Romania was founded.
- 1380 The first school in Romania was founded.
- 1494 The first pharmacy in Romania was founded.
- 1534 The first paper mill in Romania is built.
- 1544 For the first time in Sibiu , the first book printed in Romanian, printed in Transylvania .
- 1551 Conrad Haas experiences for the first time in the world, the first rocket in steps.
- 1671 In the surroundings of Sibiu methane gas is discovered.
- 1782 Chemist Franz Joseph Müller discovers tellurium.
- 1795 The oldest lightning rod in southeastern Europe is installed near Sibiu , in Cisnadie.
- 1817 The first museum in Romania is opened in Brukenthal Museum.
- 1852 Telegraful Român appears, the oldest newspaper in southern Europe, which has been published without interruption since then.
- 1859 Liars Bridge is the first iron bridge in Romania.
- 1875 The first machine tool factory in Transylvania .
- 1894 Paltinis is the first Ski Resort in Romania.
- 1895 The first encyclopedia of Romania (the third in Europe) is published.
- 1895 The Museum of Natural History that has the oldest herbarium in Romania is opened.
- 1904 Sibiu is the second European city that introduces electric tram.
- 1928 First zoo of Romania.
- 1989 Sibiu is the second city in Romania that opposed communism.